H I S T O R I C A L   I T A L I A N   M E T R O L O G Y

A spreadsheet prepared by Grant O'Brien

 

The contents of two spreadsheets of the various units of length measurement used throughout the Italian peninsula during the historical period from about 1450 until 1800

arranged according to the size of the unit of measurement, and according to the location of the centre.

These tables are intended to be used as an aid to determine the centre in which an historical keyboard instrument was made.

           

 

            An excursion into the field of historical Italian metrology is not for the faint hearted!  It is a Pandora’s box full of unexpected tricks waiting to cause grief to the the unwary.  As the whole of the Italian peninsula gradually changed to the metric system during the nineteenth century, numerous works were published dealing with the conversion of the old units of measurement of length, area, volume and currency into the new metric system.  The metric system had been imposed by law first of all after the Napoleonic invasions of the North, and eventually after the Unification of Italy as a whole.  The measurements given by the authors of the works giving the converstions from the old to the new metric system are, however, not always the ones which were actually used in the Italian peninsula in the historical period of harpsichord building.  In some areas the standards were changed in the period after that in which harpsichords were built but before the publication of the works on metrology.  In Florence, for example, the unit of length was increased by a factor of 17/16 (6¼%) as a result of legislation passed on 2 July, 1782, and also an increase of only 0.1% in Piemonte in 1818, with an increase of 0.333% in Naples after 1841.  It is therefore necessary to be sure that one is, in fact, applying the correct unit of measurement to an instrument in assigning to it its putative place of origin.

            The other problem faced by a worker in this field is that there were various subdivisions of the palmo, piede and braccio.  These were variously into 10, 12, 16, 20, etc. units and so it is clearly essential to understand how each of the larger units, whether the palmo, piede, braccio, etc., were subdivided.  Although these were usually into 12 units, a division into 10 units was common in many of the towns in the Province of Emilia-Romagna.  The latter division is not to be confused with the decimalization of the larger units introduced in some parts of Italy, for example in Sicily, during the nineteenth century.  The division of the braccio was usually into 20 units, but divisions into 12, 16, 22, etc. were also known.  When used for measuring cloth, the braccio was often divided in halves, quarters, eighths and sixteenths.  The sub-division of the units of measurement used in the design of early keyboards instruments and found in a number of important centres is given below.

 

Local divisions of the units of measurement

Cagliari and Sardinia:

1 canna = 10 palmi; 1 piede = 2 palmi = 12 once; 1 palmo = 6 once; 1 oncia = 12 punti (Dou, Eu).

Florence:

            A law was passed in Florence on 2 July, 1782 which changed the length standard in Tuscany, as noted above, so that the value of the soldo = 29.18mm used from then until 1 July, 1861 is not valid for the earlier historical period during the time of the construction of musical instruments of interest here.  In Florence and much of Tuscany 1 braccio = 2 palmi = 20 soldi = 12 crazie = 60 quattrini = 240 denari, so 1 palmo = 6 crazie = 10 soldi = 30 quattrini = 120 denari, and 1 soldo = 3 quattrini = 12 denari and 1 crazia =  soldi = 5 quattrini = 20 denari and 1 quattrino = 4 denari.

Milan:

1 braccio = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi = 20736 momenti (Cr, page 38).

Naples:

            A law was passed on 6 April, 1840 which increased the length of the palmo and other units of measurement in Naples and the surrounding area which came under the influence of the Kingdom of Naples by about 0.3338%, a small amount (see Ga, 1864).  Any sources such as Mal 1875 give the later value of the length without taking into consideration the value before 1840.  In Naples 1 canna = 8 palmi = 96 once = 480 minuti, so 1 palmo = 12 once = 60 minuti = 600 punti, and 1 oncia = 5 minuti = 50 punti, hence the oncia is divided in 5 parts and not in 12!

Piacenza:

1 piede da legno = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi = 20736 minuti = 248,832 momenti = 2,985,985 scrupoli (Source:  Cr page 39).

Piemonte (especially Turin, but valid throughout all of the smaller and larger centres in Piemonte):

14 once = 1 raso (braccio da panno); 8 once = 1 piede manuale.  According to Mar, p.783, Eu, p. 46 and others, the value of the piede was changed from 513.766mm to 514.403mm in 1818.  Before 1818 (except for the period in which Napoleon dominated Savoy from 1798 to 1816 and therefore outwith the historical period of stringed keyboard instrument making) all of the other measurements were based on the piede legale, piede liprando or the raso with an oncia = 42.814mm.

Rome:

            There were three, probably four, basic sizes for the oncia in Rome.  One, equal to about 18.617mm, was used for almost all of the normal measurements of objects, buildings, wood, etc. and was the basis of the palmo romano, piede romano, braccio romano, passetto, passo, and canna architettonica.  Cloth appears to have been measured in units of two different once, equal to about 17.67mm and 20.75mm, and were the basis of the palmo mercantile, palmo da tela, braccio mercantile, braccio da tela, braccio da tessitore, canna mercantile, etc.  The piede (close to 297.9mm) was normally divided into 16 units of the 18.617mm oncia, but it also appears that it was divided into 12 once giving another oncia of length near 24.82mm (used, for example, by Francesco Fabbri and Giambattista Boni both of whom worked in Rome).  Dou says that the piede antico = 294.5mm was still in use in 1840.  In Rome 1 piede =  palmi = 16 once.  1 palmo = 12 once.  1 oncia = 5 minuti = 10 decimi, hence the oncia is divided in 5 or 10 parts but not in 12!

 

            Tables 11 and 12 below give the sizes of the units of measurement current in all of the centres in which harpsichord and virginal makers were active in the historical period, as well as a few additional centres which were important culturally and commercially.  These are arranged both according to the centre and according to the size of the oncia, soldo or pollice.  These tables are also listed on the Russell Collection Website at http://www.music.ed.ac.uk/russell/metrology/.  Also listed on this site for downloading are the complete databases from which these two tables were extracted.  Text versions of these databases are also arranged according to the centre and according to the size of the unit of measurement, but are also available as working databases in several formats which can be manipulated by the appropriate data-base programmes in the usual way.  The tables below are the condensation of the larger database which has about 2,500 entries.  The tables below do not include any measurements given by the nineteenth-century sources for the period outwith the historical era of harpsichord building.  Sources such as Co, Did, Cha and Kr which were actually published in the historical period are often listed separately in the tables below because of their obvious importance and, usually, accuracy.

 

 

Equivalent Measurements

            In many of the regions of Italy, the units of measurement used in minor towns or centres were, for obvious reasons, equivalent to those of the particular region where they were located or to those of the nearby major centre.  The reader should note that the towns given below used measurements which were the same as those of the region in which they were located or under whose domination they found themselves:

 

Ferrara        Argenta, Cento, Comacchio, Codigoro and Pieve di Cento.

Florence      Arezzo, Empoli , Livorno, Montepulciano, Pisa, Pistoia, Porto Ferraio, Prato and Sienna.

Genoa         Chiavari, La Spezia, Novi Ligure, Oneglia, Porto Plata, Savona and San Remo.

Milan           Lodi, Monza, Pallanza and Treviglio.

Naples        Acconza, Aci Reale, Aquila, Avellino, Bari, Barletta, Benevento, Brindisi, Caggiano, Cagniolo, Calabria, Campobasso, Caserta, Catanzaro, Cava, Cava, Chieti, Cosenza, Eboli, Fiano, Foggia, Gallipoli, Ischia, Isani, Lecce, Lucera, Mazzarà, Nocera, Nota, Potenza, Puglia, Reggio di Calabria, Rocca, Salerno, Taranto and Teramo.

Palermo       Caltanissetta, Campobasso, Catania, Catanzarro, Girgenti, Lipari, Marsala, Messina, Ragusa, Siracus aand Trapani.

Perugia        Foligno, Gubbio, Narni, Spoleto and Terni.

Piacenza      Bardi, Bobbio, Carpaneto, Fiorenzuola and Pellegrino.

Reggio         Coreggio, Gualtieri, Luzzara, Reggio nell’Emilia, Reggiolo and Scandiano.

Rome          Civitavecchia, Frosinone, Orvieto, Rieti and Viterbo.

Trento         Riva di Garda and Tiarno.

Turin           Alba, Asti, Biella, Cuneo, Ivrea, Mondovì, Pinarolo, Saluzzo, Susa and Vercelli.

Venice         Asolo, Bassano, Belluno, Ceneda, Chioggia, Chions, Conegliano, Cristoglia, Gaiarine, Istria, Lugo, Mestre, Muggia, Portobuffolè, Portole, Prata, Ravenna, Rovigo, San Leonardo, Treviso, Trieste and Vicenza.

Verona        San Giorgio di Levenza and Portoguarro.

 

 

Authors Consulted:

Ca       Hercule Cavalli, Tableaux comparatifs des mesures, poids et monnaies modernes et anciens…, (Paul Dupont, Paris, 2/1874).

Cha      Chambers, Ephraim, ‘Measures’, Ciclopædia:  or An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2 (London, 1728; 4/1741; 5/1743).

Co       Colonel Cotty,  Aide-mémoire a l’usage des officiers d’artillerie de France, 2 (Paris, 1819) 896-7.

Cr        Giovanni Croci, Dizionario universale dei pesi e delle misure in uso presso gli antichi e moderni con ragguaglio ai pesi e misure del sistema metrico, (The Author, Milan, 1860).

Did      Denis Diderot and Jean Henri le Rond d'Alembert, ‘Pied’, Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonnée des arts, sciences et métiers, 7 (Paris, 1751-65) 562-563.  Diderot gives his measurements as 1440-th parts of the Paris pouce, and Colonel Cotty’s military manual was used for the length of the pouce.

Dou     Horace Doursther, Dictionnaire universel des poids et mesures anciens et modernes, (M Hayer, Brussels, 1840).

EI        Anon., ‘Piede’, Enciclopedia italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti,  27 (Rome, 1935-1943) 168.

Esp      Anon., Esposizione popolare del nuovo sistema metrico dell'impero francese comparativamente alle misure, pesi e monete toscane…, (Guglielmo Piatti, Florence, 1811) 11.

Eu        Ludovico Eusebio, Compendio di Metrologia Universale e Vocabolario Metrologico, (Unione Tipografico Editrice Torinese, Turin, 1899; reprint by Forni Editore, Bologna, 1967).

Fr        Luciana Frangioni, Milano e le sue misure.  Appunti di metrologia Lombarda fra Tre e Quattrocento, (Edizioni Scientifiche Italiani, Naples, 1992).

Ga       Giovanni Gandolfo, Tavole di ragguaglio ovvero prontuario di computi fatti di pesi, misure e monete legali italiane, (Naples, 1860).

GDE    Anon., ‘Misure’, Grande dizionario enciclopedico,  12 (Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, Turin, 1970) 626.

Kr        Johann Georg Krünitz, , Öconomische Encyklopädie oder allgemeines System der Staats-, Stadt-, und Landwirtschaft, in alphabetischer Ordnung, 15 (Jospeh Georg Traßler, Brünn, 1788) 519-22.  Given as 1440-th parts of the Paris pouce; Co used for pouce.  See Did.

Mal      L. Malvasi, La metrologia italiana ne' suoi cambievoli rapporti desunti dal confronto col sistema metrico-decimale, (Fratelli Malvasi, Modena, 1842-44).

Mar     Angelo Martini, Manuale di metrologia, (E. Loescher, Turin, 1883; reprint Editrice Edizioni Romane d’Arte, Rome, 1976).

Or        Barnaba Oriani, Istruzione su le misure e su i pesi che si usano nella Repubblica Cisalpina, (Milano, 1891).

Pa        Luigi Pancaldi, Raccolta  ridotta a dizionario di varie misure antiche e moderne coi loro rapporti alle misure metriche…, (Sassi, Bologna, 1847).

Ta1      Anon., Tavole di ragguaglio fra le nuove e le antiche misure….del Regno d'Italia publicate per ordine del Governo, 1 (Stamperia Reale, Milan, 1803).

Ta2      Anon., Tavole di ragguaglio fra le nuove e le antiche misure….del Regno d'Italia publicate per ordine del Governo, 2 (Stamperia Reale, Milan, 1809

 

Table 1 - The length of the oncia, soldo or pollice used in the Italian peninsula in the historical period arranged according to the length of the unit

Location Unit mm Sub-unit Length in mm Division Source Notes

Rome

Piede antico

294.50

oncia

18.406

16

Did,Kr,Dou

Dou says that this piede was still in use in 1840.

Rome

Piede romano

297.00

oncia

18.563

16

Ca,Eu

1 piede romano = 16 once

The Marche[1]

Piede

335.10

oncia

18.617

18

Cr,EI,Dou,Pa,Ta2,Mal,

1 piede da legname = 18 once

Rome

Palmo (architettonico)

223.42

oncia

18.619

12

Cha,Did,Co,Or,Mal,Mar,Dou,Eu

1 palmo = 12 once = 120 decimi = 60 minuti

Rome

Piede

297.90

oncia

18.619

16

Dou,Cr,Mal,Mar,Cr,Pa,Kr,

1 piede = 1 1/3 palmi = 16 once

The Marche[2]

Palmo

223.42

oncia

18.619

12

Mar

1 palmo Romano = 12 once

Sienna

Braccio

378.52

oncia

18.926

20

Cha

 

Palermo

Piede

227.84

oncia

18.987

12

Did

 

Naples

Piede

232.35

oncia

19.363

12

Did

 

Palermo

Palmo

242.05

oncia

20.171

12

Ca,Did,Kr,Cr

1 palmo = 12 once

Palermo

Palmo

242.78

oncia

20.232

12

Dou

 

Genoa

Palmo

248.08

oncia

20.674

12

Ca,Did,GDE,Mal,Mar,Kr,Cha

1 palmo = 12 once = 144 linee = 1728 punti

Rome

Palmo mercantile

248.99

oncia

20.749

12

Eu,Mar,Mal,Dou,Pa,Co

1 palmo = 12 once

Sicily and Palermo

Palmo

257.80

oncia

21.483

12

Mal,Eu,Mar

1 palmo = 12 once = 144 linee = 1728 punti

Naples

Braccio

698.00

oncia

21.813

32

Ca

1 braccio = 2 2/3 palmi = 32 once

Naples

Canna

2096.10

oncia

21.834

96

Ca,Dou,Pa,Or,Cha

1 canna = 8 palmi = 96 once = 480 minuti

Naples

Palmo

262.01

oncia

21.835

12

Dou,Cr

1 palmo = 12 once = 60 minuti

Naples

Canna

2109.36

oncia

21.973

96

Ga,Mal,Mar

1 canna = 8 palmi

Naples

Palmo

263.67

oncia

21.973

12

Did,Ga,Mal,Mar

1 palmo = 12 once = 4 quarti = 60 minuti

Genoa

Piede

263.93

oncia

21.994

12

Did

 

Savoia

Braccio

270.70

oncia

22.558

12

Kr

1 piede = 12 once

Verona

Piede

270.90

oncia

22.575

12

Co

 

Rimini

Piede

271.83

oncia

22.653

12

Kr

1 braccio = 12 once

Aosta

Pied

312.00

pollice

26.000

12

Mar,Cr

1 pied = 12 pouce = 144 lignes

Trentino and Trieste

Piede (Viennese Fuss)

316.08

pollice

26.340

12

Mal,Mar

1 piede = 12 pollici = 144 linee

Fossombrone Piede 316.5 oncia 26.38 12 Pa 1 piede = 12 once
Urbania (Castel Durante)

Piede

316.5

oncia

26.38 12 Pa

1 piede = 12 once

Fossombrone Piede 322.257 oncia 26.85 12 Mal,Ta2,Pa,Cr 1 piede di Campidoglio = 12 once

Venice

Piede

322.58

oncia

26.882

12

Did

 

Turin

Piede

323.03

oncia

26.919

12

Pa,Kr

1 piede = 12 once

Fossombrone Piede 325.795 oncia 27.15 12 Mal,Dou,Cr  
Urbania (Castel Durante) Braccio mercantile (da panno) 651.5 oncia 27.15 24 Mal,Pa 1 braccio da panno = 24 once
Fossombrone Braccio mercantile 655.8 oncia 27.33 24 Mal,Dou,Cr 1 braccio mercantile = 24 once

Florence

Bavelle

273.41

soldo

27.341

10

Kr

1 bavelle = 1 palmo

Florence

Braccio di terra

548.17

soldo

27.409

20

Did

1 braccio = 20 soldi = 240 denari, etc.

Florence

Braccio a terra

551.20

soldo

27.560

20

Co,Mar

1 braccio = 20 soldi = 240 denari, etc.

Trento

Piede da fabbrica

331.91

oncia

27.659

12

Mar

 

Tirol and Bolzano

Piede

334.30

oncia

27.858

12

Mar,Dou

 

Fossombrone Piede da legname 335.1 oncia 27.93 12 Mal,Cr 1 piede da legname = 12 once

Udine

Piede

340.49

oncia

28.374

12

EI,Dou,Mar,Ta2,Mal,Cr

1 piede = 12 once = 144 linee

Verona

Piede

342.90

oncia

28.575

12

Cr,Did,Dou,Pa,Or,Mal,Ta2,Mar

1 piede = 12 once = 144 linee

Aquila

Piede

343.80

oncia

28.650

12

Dou

 

Udine

Piede

345.14

oncia

28.762

12

Co

1 piede = 12 once

Urbania (Castel Durante)

Piede da fabbrica e da legname

346.85

oncia

28.9 12 Mal,Ta2,Pa 1 piede da fabbrica = 12 once

Venice

Piede

347.74

oncia

28.978

12

Did,Kr,Cr,Dou,Mal,Mar,Ta2

1 piede = 12 once = 144 linee = 1440 decimi

Pesaro

Piede da fabbrica

348.14

oncia

29.011

12

EI,Pa,Dou,Cr,Ta2,Mar,Mal

1 piede = 12 once = 60 minuti

Urbino

Piede da fabbrica

353.72

oncia

29.477

12

EI,Cr,Pa,Ta2,Mar,Mal,Pa,Kr

1 piede = 12 once

Padua

Palmo

354.17

oncia

29.514

12

Did,Kr

1 palmo = 12 once

Senigallia

Piede da fabbrica

354.70

oncia

29.558

12

Pa,Mal,Ce,Ta2,Mar

1 piede da fabbrica = 12 once

Vicenza

Piede

356.42

oncia

29.702

12

Kr,Did,Co

 

Padua

Piede

357.39

oncia

29.783

12

Co,Mar,Ta2

1 piede = 12 once = 144 linee

Perugia

Piede

363.50

oncia

30.292

12

Mar,Pa

1 piede = 12 once = 60 minuti

Trento

Piede

365.90

oncia

30.492

12

Mar,Dou

 

Bologna

Piede or Braccio

378.98

oncia

31.582

12

Did

 

Bologna

Piede

379.43

oncia

31.619

12

Did,Kr,Co

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Bologna

Piede agrimensorio

380.10

oncia

31.675

12

Ca,Did,GDE,Eu,Mar,Ta1,Cr,Pa,Or,Mal,Dou

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Urbino

Piede

383.50

oncia

31.958

12

Pa,Cr,Mar

1 piede = 12 once

Senigallia

Piede da legname

392.60

oncia

32.717

12

Pa,Mal,Ta2

1 piede da legname = 12 once

Milan

Piede

397.03

oncia

33.085

12

Kr

1 piede = 12 once

Ferrara

Piede

401.31

oncia

33.443

12

Co

1 piede = 12 once

Ferrara

Piede

403.85

oncia

33.655

12

EI,Eu,Dou,Mar,Ta1,Mal,Cr,Or,Pa

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Turin

Piede

433.12

oncia

36.093

12

Did

 

Milan

Piede

435.19

oncia

36.265

12

Ca,Eu,Cr,Fr,Mal,Or,Pa,Dou,Mar

1 braccio = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Bergamo

Piede

437.77

oncia

36.481

12

Dou,Fr,Or,Mar,Mal,Pa

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Sondrio

Piede

446.20

oncia

37.184

12

Dou,Cr,Fr,Mar,Mal,Or,

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Como

Piede

451.22

oncia

37.602

12

Dou,Pa,Cr,Fr,Mar,Or,Mal

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Pavia

Piede

457.93

oncia

38.161

12

Kr

1 piede = 12 once

Mantua

Piede

466.86

oncia

38.905

12

Did,Kr,Or,Mal,Cr,Dou,Fr,Pa,Mar

1 piede = 12 once

Brescia

Braccio

468.08

oncia

39.007

12

Did,Kr

 

Mantua

Piede

469.21

oncia

39.101

12

Did

 

Piacenza

Piede

469.57

oncia

39.130

12

Fr,Mal,Cr,Dou,Mar

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Brescia

Piede

470.99

oncia

39.249

12

Cr,Or,Mal,Dou,

1 piede = 12 once

Pavia

Piede agrimensorio

471.95

oncia

39.330

12

EI,Dou,Cr,Fr,Mar,Or,Mal,Pa

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Brescia

Piede

472.22

oncia

39.352

12

Did

 

Brescia

Piede

475.47

oncia

39.622

12

Fr,Mar,Dou,Mal,Ta1,Mal,Pa,

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Brescia

Piede

477.11

oncia

39.759

12

Did

 

Cremona

Piede

483.54

oncia

40.295

12

Dou,Pa,Or,Mal,Fr,Mar

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Sardinia

Palmo

251.07

oncia

41.845

6

Kr

1 piede = 2 palmi = 12 once

Genoa

Piede liprando

513.77

oncia

42.814

12

Dou

 

Genoa

Piede manuale

342.51

oncia

42.814

8

Dou

 

Turin

Piede (piede liprando)

513.77

oncia

42.814

12

Ca,Or,Mal,Eu,Cr,Mar,Dou,

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Turin

Piede legale

342.51

oncia

42.814

8

Cr,Dou,Eu,Mar,Mal

1 piede legale = 8 once

Modena

Piede

523.05

oncia

43.587

12

Pa,Eu,Ta1,Cr,Dou,Mal,Mar,Or

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Cagliari

Piede

524.70

oncia

43.725

12

Mar,GDE,Eu,Ca, Dou

1 piede = 2 palmi = 12 once = 144 punti

Imola

Piede agrimensorio

439.66

oncia

43.966

10

Cr,Dou,Or,Mal,Mar,Ta1,Pa

1 piede = 10 once = 100 punti

Reggio

Piede

530.90

oncia

44.242

12

Ta1,Or,Cr,Dou,Mar,Pa,Or,Mal

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti

Parma

Braccio o piede

545.17

oncia

45.431

12

Did,Kr,Mar,Mal,Pa,Or,Dou,Eu,Ca

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Piacenza

Braccio

546.59

oncia

45.549

12

Did,Kr

 

Parma

Piede

550.42

oncia

45.868

12

Did

 

Macerata

Piede agrimensorio

558.51

oncia

46.542

12

Dou,Pa,Cr,Mal

 

Senigallia

Piede

558.50

oncia

46.542

12

Dou,Pa,Cr,Mal

1 piede = 12 once

Faenza

Piede

479.77

oncia

47.977

10

Dou,Mar,Or,Mal,Ta1,Pa,Cr

1 piede = 10 once

Forlì

Piede

488.21

oncia

48.821

10

Cr,Dou,Pa,Or,Mal,Mar,Ta1

1 piede = 10 once

Ravenna

Piede agrimensorio

584.61

oncia

58.461

10

Pa,Or,Mal,Mar,Cr

1 piede = 10 once = 100 punti

 

Table 2 - The length of the oncia, soldo or pollice used in the historical period on the Italian peninsula arranged according to location

Location

Unit

mm

Sub-unit

Length in mm

Division

Source

Notes

Aosta

Pied

312.00

pollice

26.000

12

Mar,Cr

1 pied = 12 pouce = 144 lignes

Aquila

Piede

343.80

oncia

28.650

12

Dou

 

Bergamo

Piede

437.77

oncia

36.481

12

Dou,Fr,Or,Mar,Mal,Pa

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Bologna

Piede or Braccio

378.98

oncia

31.582

12

Did

 

Bologna

Piede

379.43

oncia

31.619

12

Did,Kr,Co

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Bologna

Piede agrimensorio

380.10

oncia

31.675

12

Ca,Did,GDE,Eu,Mar,Ta1,Cr,Pa,Or,Mal,Dou

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Brescia

Braccio

468.08

oncia

39.007

12

Did,Kr

 

Brescia

Piede

470.99

oncia

39.249

12

Cr,Or,Mal,Dou,

1 piede = 12 once

Brescia

Piede

472.22

oncia

39.352

12

Did

 

Brescia

Piede

475.47

oncia

39.622

12

Fr,Mar,Dou,Mal,Ta1,Mal,Pa,

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Brescia

Piede

477.11

oncia

39.759

12

Did

 

Cagliari

Piede

524.70

oncia

43.725

12

Mar,GDE,Eu,Ca, Dou

1 piede = 2 palmi = 12 once = 144 punti

Como

Piede

451.22

oncia

37.602

12

Dou,Pa,Cr,Fr,Mar,Or,Mal

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Cremona

Piede

483.54

oncia

40.295

12

Dou,Pa,Or,Mal,Fr,Mar

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Faenza

Piede

479.77

oncia

47.977

10

Dou,Mar,Or,Mal,Ta1,Pa,Cr

1 piede = 10 once

Ferrara

Piede

401.31

oncia

33.443

12

Co

1 piede = 12 once

Ferrara

Piede

403.85

oncia

33.655

12

EI,Eu,Dou,Mar,Ta1,Mal,Cr,Or,Pa

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Florence

Bavelle

273.41

soldo

27.341

10

Kr

1 bavelle = 1 palmo

Florence

Braccio di terra

548.17

soldo

27.409

20

Did

1 braccio = 20 soldi = 240 denari, etc.

Florence

Braccio a terra

551.20

soldo

27.560

20

Co,Mar

1 braccio = 20 soldi = 240 denari, etc.

Forlì

Piede

488.21

oncia

48.821

10

Cr,Dou,Pa,Or,Mal,Mar,Ta1

1 piede = 10 once

Fossombrone Piede 316.5 oncia 26.38 12 Pa 1 piede = 12 once
Fossombrone Piede 322.257 oncia 26.85 12 Mal,Ta2,Pa,Cr 1 piede di Campidoglio = 12 once
Fossombrone Piede 325.795 oncia 27.15 12 Mal,Dou,Cr  
Fossombrone Braccio mercantile 655.8 oncia 27.33 24 Mal,Dou,Cr 1 braccio mercantile = 24 once
Fossombrone Piede da legname 335.1 oncia 27.93 12 Mal,Cr 1 piede da legname = 12 once

Genoa

Palmo

248.08

oncia

20.674

12

Ca,Did,GDE,Mal,Mar,Kr,Cha

1 palmo = 12 once = 144 linee = 1728 punti

Genoa

Piede

263.93

oncia

21.994

12

Did

 

Genoa

Piede liprando

513.77

oncia

42.814

12

Dou

 

Genoa

Piede manuale

342.51

oncia

42.814

8

Dou

 

Imola

Piede agrimensorio

439.66

oncia

43.966

10

Cr,Dou,Or,Mal,Mar,Ta1,Pa

1 piede = 10 once = 100 punti

Macerata

Piede agrimensorio

558.51

oncia

46.542

12

Dou,Pa,Cr,Mal

 

Mantua

Piede

466.86

oncia

38.905

12

Did,Kr,Or,Mal,Cr,Dou,Fr,Pa,Mar

1 piede = 12 once

Mantua

Piede

469.21

oncia

39.101

12

Did

 

Milan

Piede

397.03

oncia

33.085

12

Kr

1 piede = 12 once

Milan

Piede

435.19

oncia

36.265

12

Ca,Eu,Cr,Fr,Mal,Or,Pa,Dou,Mar

1 braccio = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Modena

Piede

523.05

oncia

43.587

12

Pa,Eu,Ta1,Cr,Dou,Mal,Mar,Or

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Naples

Piede

232.35

oncia

19.363

12

Did

 

Naples

Braccio

698.00

oncia

21.813

32

Ca

1 braccio = 2 2/3 palmi = 32 once

Naples

Canna

2096.10

oncia

21.834

96

Ca,Dou,Pa,Or,Cha

1 canna = 8 palmi = 96 once = 480 minuti

Naples

Palmo

262.01

oncia

21.835

12

Dou,Cr

1 palmo = 12 once = 60 minuti

Naples

Canna

2109.36

oncia

21.973

96

Ga,Mal,Mar

1 canna = 8 palmi

Naples

Palmo

263.67

oncia

21.973

12

Did,Ga,Mal,Mar

1 palmo = 12 once = 4 quarti = 60 minuti

Padua

Palmo

354.17

oncia

29.514

12

Did,Kr

1 palmo = 12 once

Padua

Piede

357.39

oncia

29.783

12

Co,Mar,Ta2

1 piede = 12 once = 144 linee

Palermo

Piede

227.84

oncia

18.987

12

Did

 

Palermo

Palmo

242.05

oncia

20.171

12

Ca,Did,Kr,Cr

1 palmo = 12 once

Palermo

Palmo

242.78

oncia

20.232

12

Dou

 

Parma

Braccio o piede

545.17

oncia

45.431

12

Did,Kr,Mar,Mal,Pa,Or,Dou,Eu,Ca

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Parma

Piede

550.42

oncia

45.868

12

Did

 

Pavia

Piede

457.93

oncia

38.161

12

Kr

1 piede = 12 once

Pavia

Piede agrimensorio

471.95

oncia

39.330

12

EI,Dou,Cr,Fr,Mar,Or,Mal,Pa

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Perugia

Piede

363.50

oncia

30.292

12

Mar,Pa

1 piede = 12 once = 60 minuti

Pesaro

Piede da fabbrica

348.14

oncia

29.011

12

EI,Pa,Dou,Cr,Ta2,Mar,Mal

1 piede = 12 once = 60 minuti

Piacenza

Piede

469.57

oncia

39.130

12

Fr,Mal,Cr,Dou,Mar

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Piacenza

Braccio

546.59

oncia

45.549

12

Did,Kr

 

Ravenna

Piede agrimensorio

584.61

oncia

58.461

10

Pa,Or,Mal,Mar,Cr

1 piede = 10 once = 100 punti

Reggio

Piede

530.90

oncia

44.242

12

Ta1,Or,Cr,Dou,Mar,Pa,Or,Mal

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti

Rimini

Piede

271.83

oncia

22.653

12

Kr

1 braccio = 12 once

Rome

Piede antico

294.50

oncia

18.406

16

Did,Kr,Dou

Dou ays that this piede was still in use in 1840.

Rome

Piede romano

297.00

oncia

18.563

16

Ca,Eu

1 piede romano = 16 once

Rome

Palmo (architettonico)

223.42

oncia

18.619

12

Cha,Did,Co,Or,Mal,Mar,Dou,Eu

1 palmo = 12 once = 120 decimi = 60 minuti

Rome

Piede

297.90

oncia

18.619

16

Dou,Cr,Mal,Mar,Cr,Pa,Kr,

1 piede = 1 1/3 palmi = 16 once

Rome

Palmo mercantile

248.99

oncia

20.749

12

Eu,Mar,Mal,Dou,Pa,Co

1 palmo = 12 once

Sardinia

Palmo

251.07

oncia

41.845

6

Kr

1 piede = 2 palmi = 12 once

Savoia

Braccio

270.70

oncia

22.558

12

Kr

1 piede = 12 once

Senigallia

Piede da fabbrica

354.70

oncia

29.558

12

Pa,Mal,Ce,Ta2,Mar

1 piede da fabbrica = 12 once

Senigallia

Piede da legname

392.60

oncia

32.717

12

Pa,Mal,Ta2

1 piede da legname = 12 once

Senigallia

Piede

558.50

oncia

46.542

12

Dou,Pa,Cr,Mal

1 piede = 12 once

Sicily and

Palermo

Palmo

257.80

oncia

21.483

12

Mal,Eu,Mar

1 palmo = 12 once = 144 linee = 1728 punti

Sienna

Braccio

378.52

oncia

18.926

20

Cha

 

Sondrio

Piede

446.20

oncia

37.184

12

Dou,Cr,Fr,Mar,Mal,Or,

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

The Marche[3]

Piede

335.10

oncia

18.617

18

Cr,EI,Dou,Pa,Ta2,Mal,

1 piede da legname = 18 once

The Marche[4]

Palmo

223.42

oncia

18.619

12

Mar

1 palmo Romano = 12 once

Tirol and

Bolzano

Piede

334.30

oncia

27.858

12

Mar,Dou

 

Trentino and Trieste

Piede (Viennese Fuss)

316.08

pollice

26.340

12

Mal,Mar

1 piede = 12 pollici = 144 linee

Trento

Piede da fabbrica

331.91

oncia

27.659

12

Mar

 

Trento

Piede

365.90

oncia

30.492

12

Mar,Dou

 

Turin

Piede

323.03

oncia

26.919

12

Pa,Kr

1 piede = 12 once

Turin

Piede

433.12

oncia

36.093

12

Did

 

Turin

Piede (piede liprando)

513.77

oncia

42.814

12

Ca,Or,Mal,Eu,Cr,Mar,Dou,

1 piede = 12 once = 144 punti = 1728 atomi

Turin

Piede legale

342.51

oncia

42.814

8

Cr,Dou,Eu,Mar,Mal

1 piede legale = 8 once

Udine

Piede

340.49

oncia

28.374

12

EI,Dou,Mar,Ta2,Mal,Cr

1 piede = 12 once = 144 linee

Udine

Piede

345.14

oncia

28.762

12

Co

1 piede = 12 once

Urbania (Castel Durante)

Piede

316.5

oncia

26.38 12 Pa

1 piede = 12 once

Urbania (Castel Durante)

Piede da fabbrica e da legname

346.85

oncia

28.9 12 Mal,Ta2,Pa 1 piede da fabbrica = 12 once
Urbania (Castel Durante) Braccio mercantile (da panno) 651.5 oncia 27.15 24 Mal,Pa 1 braccio da panno = 24 once

Urbino

Piede da fabbrica

353.72

oncia

29.477

12

EI,Cr,Pa,Ta2,Mar,Mal,Pa,Kr

1 piede = 12 once

Urbino

Piede

383.50

oncia

31.958

12

Pa,Cr,Mar

1 piede = 12 once

Venice

Piede

322.58

oncia

26.882

12

Did

 

Venice

Piede

347.74

oncia

28.978

12

Did,Kr,Cr,Dou,Mal,Mar,Ta2

1 piede = 12 once = 144 linee = 1440 decimi

Verona

Piede

270.90

oncia

22.575

12

Co

 

Verona

Piede

342.90

oncia

28.575

12

Cr,Did,Dou,Pa,Or,Mal,Ta2,Mar

1 piede = 12 once = 144 linee

Vicenza

Piede

356.42

oncia

29.702

12

Kr,Did,Co

 

 


[1] The Roman palmo and piede were used widely throughout parts of the Regions of Lazio and The Marche including:  Ancona, Apiro, Ascoli Piceno, Belforte, Cagli, Camerino, Castelfidardo, Cingoli, Civitanova, Civitavecchia, Corinaldo, Fabriano, Fenigli, Fermo, Fossombrone, Frosinone, Loreto, Macerata, Matelica, Mondavio, Montalto, Montecassiano, Montecosaro, Montefano, Montegiorgio, Montelupone, Montenovo, Morovalle, Offida, Orvieto, Osimo, Pergola, Petriolo, Recanati, Rieti, Ripatransone, Roccacondrada, San Elpidio, San Ginesio, San Leo, Sanseverino, Sant’Agata Feltria, Sarnano, Sassoferato, Serra de’ Conti, Serra San Quirico, Staffolo, Tolentino, Treia, Urbino, and Viterbo.

[2] See footnote 1.

[3] See footnote 1.

[4] See footnote 1.

Geometry and the unit of measurement

 

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